How does Bluetooth work?

How does Bluetooth work?



Bluetooth technology is a high speed low powered wireless technology link that is designed to connect phones or other portable equipment together. It is a specification (IEEE 802.15.1) for the use of low-power radio communications to link phones, computers, and other network devices over short distances without wires. Wireless signals transmitted with Bluetooth cover short distances, typically up to 30 feet (10 meters).

It is achieved by embedded low-cost transceivers into the devices. It supports on the frequency band of 2.45GHz and can support up to 721KBps along with three voice channels. This frequency band has been set aside by international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific, and medical devices (ISM).rd-compatible with 1.0 devices.

Bluetooth can connect up to “eight devices” simultaneously and each device offers a unique 48-bit address from the IEEE 802 standard with the connections being made a point to point or multipoint.

Bluetooth Specifications:

  • Core Specifications: It defines the Bluetooth protocol stack and the requirements for testing and qualification of Bluetooth-based products.
  • The profiles specification:  It defines usage models that provide detailed information about how to use the Bluetooth protocol for various types of applications.

Advantages of Bluetooth Technology:

  • It removes the problem of radio interference by using a technique called Speed Frequency Hopping.  This technique utilizes 79 channels of the particular frequency band, with each device accessing the channel for only 625 microseconds, i.e. the device must toggle between transmitting and receiving data from one-time slot to another. This implies the transmitters change frequencies 1,600 times every second, meaning that more devices can make full use of a limited slice of the radio spectrum. This ensures that the interference won’t take place as each transmitter will be on different frequencies.
  • The power consumption of the chip (consisting of a transceiver) is low, at about 0.3mW, which makes it possible for the least utilization of battery life.
  • It guarantees security at the bit level. The authentication is controlled using a 128bit key.
  • It is possible to use Bluetooth for both transferring data and verbal communication as Bluetooth can support data channels of up to 3 similar voice channels.
  • It overcomes the constraints of the line of sight and one to one communication as in another mode of wireless communications like infrared.


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